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About the Company

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  • Recent Patents

Larry for web

Lawrence M. Boyd, Ph.D., M.E.M.

Dr. Boyd is an international leader in orthopaedic medical device innovation, with over 50 U.S. patents and pending applications for medical devices and related procedures. After receiving his MS degree in Bioengineering from Clemson University in 1989, he became product development group leader and engineer at Dow Corning Wright in Arlington, TN, and during his three years there, developed implants for use in hands, feet, and knees. He then moved on to work for a small start-up company in Memphis that at the time was called Danek Medical (later Sofamor Danek). The company's focus was in an emerging arena for medical implants, spinal fusion. Dr. Boyd worked in the area of interbody fusion and artificial disc replacement.

He held positions of manager, director and group director, where he focused his efforts on research, development and commercialization of medical technologies. To further his leadership skills, he also enrolled in a Master of Engineering Management program that offered evening classes at Christian Brothers University. Medtronic later acquired Sofamor Danek and promoted him to vice president of product development.

Recognizing the growing importance of recombinant proteins, human tissues and other biologically inspired materials and potential for applications to spine, he started on his PhD in Biomedical Engineering at Duke University in 2000, working in the laboratory of biomedical engineering professor Lori Setton, PhD. He collaborated with Duke orthopaedic and neurosurgical spinal surgeons in research to elucidate the pathogenesis of spinal degeneration. He conducted his dissertation studies in mice lacking a key form of collagen (type IX collagen) to better understand the mechanisms of disc degeneration and the changes that occur in the adjacent bone during spinal disc degeneration. In his dissertation research, he developed novel methods for applying histological grading, microcomputed tomography and microdialysis to the study of the murine intervertebral disc. He is published widely in the literature and has been lead author on manuscripts published in Arthritis & Rheumatism, European Spine Journal, Annals of Biomedical Engineering and Spine. He has presented his work at many scientific meetings, including the ORS, ISSLS and BMES.

Dr. Boyd received his PhD in the summer of 2007, and accepted a position as Associate Director of the Center for Entrepreneurship and Research Commercialization at Duke. His role at CERC includes the development of infrastructure to support undergraduate students with creative and entrepreneurial aspirations. This developmental effort includes a student “entrepreneurial hatchery” (DUHatch) with access to business contacts in the community, a business mentoring program and a novel undergraduate course entitled “Introduction to Business in Technology-Based Companies” (BME 120). Dr. Boyd is also an adjunct professor for the Biomedical Engineering Department and the Masters of Engineering Management Program at Duke. In addition, he is the Founder and President of Palmetto Biomedical, Inc. and the Co-founder and Chief Technical Officer for Bioshape Solutions, Inc. He currently consults for a variety of medical device firms, including SpineWave and NuVasive.

Recent Publications

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Boyd LM, Richardson WJ, Allen KD, Flahiff C, Jing L, Li Y, Chen J and LA Setton (2008) Early Onset Degeneration of the Intervertebral Disc and Vertebral Endplate in Mice Deficient in Type IX Collagen.  Arthritis & Rheumatism, 58:1, 164-171.

Boyd LM and Carter AJ: (2006) Injectable Biomaterials and Vertebral Endplate Treatment for Repair and Regeneration of the Intervertebral Disc.  European Spine Journal, 15(Suppl.3):S414-S421.
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Boyd LM, Richardson WJ, Chen J, Kraus VB, Tewari A and Setton LA: (2005) Osmolarity Regulates Gene Expression in Intervertebral Disc Cells Quantified with Gene Array and Real-time Quantitative RT-PCR.  Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 33:8, 1071-1077.
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Boyd LM, Walkenhorst, J and Carter AJ: (2004) Injectable Biomaterials for Repair and Regeneration of the Intervertebral Disc. Non-fusion Techniques in Spinal Surgery, Milan, Italy, September 10-11, 33-41.

Boyd LM, Chen J, Kraus, VB and Setton LA: (2004) Conditioned Medium Regulates Matrix Protein Gene Expression in Cells of the Intervertebral Disc.  Spine 29:20, 2217-2222.
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Boyd LM, Setton LA, Plouhar PL, Hsu ES, and Richardson WJ: (2003) Animal Models of Disc Degeneration: An Experimental Vertebral Body Defect Model for Human Degenerative Disc Disease. Non-fusion Techniques in Spinal Surgery, Bordeaux, France, February 14-15, 55-63.

Boyd LM, Mahar A, and Cappello, J: (2003) Injectable Biomaterials for Augmentation of the Nucleus Pulposus. Non-fusion Techniques in Spinal Surgery, Bordeaux, France, February 14-15, 83-92.
Cizek G and Boyd LM: (2000) Imaging Pitfalls of Interbody Spinal Implants. Spine, 25(20): 2633-2636.
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Boyd LM, Estes BT and Liu M: (1999) Biomechanics of Lumbar Interbody Constructs – Effects of Design and Materials. Chirurgie Endoscopique et Mini-Invasive du Rachis, Ed: LeHeuc JC and Husson JL, Sauramps Medical Publishing, Montpellier, France, 181-192

Recent Presentations

Chen J, Boyd LM, Allen KD, Tsuboyama M, L Jing, Malfait A-M and LA Setton (2007) Evaluation of Intervertebral Disc and Vertebral Endplate Degeneration in ADAMTS5 (Aggrecanase-2) Knockout Mice. Osteoarthritis Research Society International World Congress, December 6-9, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida.

Boyd LM, Richardson WJ, Odom D, Flahiff CM, Li Y, Guilak F and LA Setton (2007) Microcomputed Tomographic Analysis of Endplate and Vertebral Body Structure in Mice Lacking Type IX Collagen.  International Society for Study of the Lumbar Spine, Hong Kong, China, June 10-14, paper 26.

Boyd, LM, Richardson WJ, Allen K, Flahiff CM, Li Y, Guilak F and LA Setton (2007) Early Onset Degeneration of the Intervertebral Disc and Endplate in Mice Deficient in Type IX Collagen. International Society for Study of the Lumbar Spine, Hong Kong, China, June 10-14, paper 27. 

Boyd, LM, Clapp M, Richardson WJ, Odom DC, Jing L, Chen J, and LA Setton (2007) Static Compression Effects on Region-specific Gene Expression in the Murine Intervertebral Disc In Vitro.  53rd Annual Orthopaedic Research Society, San Diego, CA, February 11-14, paper 1109.

Boyd LM, Clapp M, Richardson WJ, Odom D, Jing L, Chen J and Setton LA. (2006) Static Compression Modulates Gene Expression in the Murine Intervertebral Disc In Vitro.  15th World Congress in Biomechanics, July 29-August 4, p.6757.

Odom DC, Boyd LM and LA Setton (2006) Evaluation of Bone and Marrow Architecture in Type IX Collagen Deficient Mice Using Microcomputed Tomography. Biomedical Engineering Department Graduation with Distinction Presentation, Duke University, April 28.

Chen J, Jing L, Boyd LM and LA Setton (2006) Intervertebral Disc Cells Respond to Pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α in a Mouse Motion Segment Culture System, Orthopaedic Research Society, Chicago, IL, March 19-22, Paper 375.

Vishnubhotla S, Goel VK, Shaw MN, Sairyo K, Walkenhorst J and LM Boyd (2006) Kinematic Analysis of Dynamic Stabilization Systems for the Lumbar Spine, Orthopaedic Research Society, Chicago, IL, March 19-22, Paper 1278.

Clapp M, Boyd, LM, Richardson W, Odom D, Jing L, Chen J and L A Setton (2005) Development of an In Vitro Culture System for Compressive Loading of Intervertebral Discs of the Murine Spine.  State of North Carolina Undergraduate Research Symposium, Raleigh, NC, November 12.

Boyd LM, Richardson WJ, Li Y, Chen J, Flahiff CM, Alexopoulos LG, Guilak F, Xu L, Olsen BR, Bonaldo P and Setton LA (2005) Intervertebral Disc Degeneration in Mice Harboring Collagen Gene Mutations. International Society for Study of the Lumbar Spine, New York, NY, May 10-14, p. 224.

Chen J, Jing LF, Boyd LM and Setton LA. Intervertebral Disc Cell Responses to Inflammatory Stimuli in a Mouse Motion Segment Culture System In Vitro (2005) International Society for Study of the Lumbar Spine, New York, NY, May 10-14, p. 72.

Chen J, Jing LF, Boyd LM, Upton ML and Setton LA. Cell Viability and Matrix Protein Gene Expression Levels are Maintained in Mouse Motion Segment Culture (2005) International Society for Study of the Lumbar Spine, New York, NY, May 10-14, p.231.

Vishnubhotla S, Goel VK, Walkenhorst J, Boyd LM, Vadapilli S and Shaw MN. Biomechanical Advantages of Using Dynamic Stabilization Over Rigid Stabilization (2005)   International Society for Study of the Lumbar Spine, New York, NY, May 10-14, p.426.

Vishnubhotla S, Goel VK, Walkenhorst J, Boyd LM, Vadapalli S, Shaw MN and Sairo K. Stability Offered by an Interspinous Device in Decompression Surgery – A Biomechanical FEM Study (2005) International Society for Study of the Lumbar Spine, New York, NY, May 10-14, p.427.

Boyd L, Richardson WJ, Li Y, Flahiff CM, Alexopoulos LG, Guilak F, Xu L, Olsen BR, Bonaldo P and Setton LA (2005) Evaluation of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration in Mice Harboring Gene Mutations for Types VI, IX and XI Collagens. Orthopaedic Research Society, Washington D.C., February 20-23, Paper 374.

Vishnubhotla S, Goel VK, Vadapalli S, Masuda A, Khandha A, Shaw MN, Walkenhorst J, and L Boyd (2004)  Dynamic Fixation Systems Compared to the Rigid Spinal Instrumentation – A Finite Element Investigation. American Society of Biomechanics, Portland, OR, September 8-11.

Ko, P and L Boyd (2004) Gene Expression in Pediatric Intervertebral Disc Cells Quantified with Gene Array and Real-time Quantitative RT-PCR.  Howard Hughes Summer Scholars, Poster Session, Duke University, July 30.

Boyd L, Richardson WJ, Chen J, Kraus VB, and LA Setton (2004) Differences in Expression of Neurotrophic Factors in Adult and Juvenile Intervertebral Disc Cells Subjected to Hyperosmotic Load. International Society for Study of the Lumbar Spine, Porto, Portugal, May 30-June 5, p133.

Boyd LM, Walkenhorst J, and Cappello J: (2004) An Injectable Biomaterial for Augmentation of the Nucleus Pulposus. Southeast Workshop on Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials, Clemson University, Clemson, SC, January 29-20.

Boyd LM, Chen J, Richardson WJ, Kraus VB, and Setton LA: (2003) Increased Expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Intervertebral Disc Cells Subjected to Hyperosmotic Loading.   International Society for Study of the Lumbar Spine, Vancouver, Canada, May 13-17, p188.

Boyd LM, Chen J, Richardson WJ, Kraus VB and Setton LA: (2003) Osmolarity Regulates Gene Expression in Intervertebral Disc Cells Quantified with High Density Oligonucleotide Array Technology. Transactions of the 49th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, New Orleans, LA, February 2-5, 28:1133.

Boyd LM, Richardson WJ, Kim J, Plouhar PL, Smith KL, Flahiff CM, Malaviya P, Serhan H, Hsu EW and Setton LA: (2002) Experimental Intervertebral Disc Degeneration Induced by a Vertebral Body Defect. North American Spine Society, Montreal, Canada, October 29-November 2, p50.

Boyd LM, Richardson WJ, Kim J, Plouhar PL, Smith KL, Flahiff CM, Malaviya P, Serhan H, Hsu EW and Setton LA: (2002) Vertebral Body Damage Induces Intervertebral Disc Degeneration in an Animal Model. International Society for the Study of the Lumbar Spine, Cleveland, OH, May 14-18, p22.

Boyd LM, Chen J and Setton, LA: (2002) Conditioned Medium Stimulates Aggrecan and Collagen Type II Gene Expression in Anulus Fibrosus Cells. Transactions of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Orthopaedic Research Society, Dallas, TX, February 10-13, 27:819.

Boyd LM, Grinstaff MW, Smeds KA, Betre H and Setton LA: (2001) Development of a Photocrosslinkable Hyaluronan Hydrogel for Cartilage Repair. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, BMES Meeting Abstract Supplement, Durham, NC, October 4-7, 29:S1:160.

Baer AE, Grinstaff MW, Smeds KA, Boyd LM and Setton LA: (2001) Nonlinear Finite Element Modeling of Cell Mechanical Environment in Hydrogels for Intervertebral Disc Repair. Transactions of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 50:113-114.

Branch CL, Rauschning W, Liu M and Boyd LM: (2000) Development and Testing of a Novel Cortical Allograft Wedge for Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion. AANS/CNS Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves, Palm Springs, CA, February 23-26, p57.

Cizek G and Boyd LM: (1999) Imaging Pitfalls of Interbody Spinal Implants. North American Spine Society, Chicago, IL, October 21-23, 15-17.

Cizek G and Boyd LM: (1999) Peri-implant Lucencies due to Radiographic Technical Factors. North American Spine Society, Chicago, IL, October 21-23, 17-18.
Boyd LM, Estes BT and Liu M: (1999) Biomechanical Characteristics of Interbody Constructs: Testing of Titanium, Cortical Bone and Composite Implants. International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques, Vancouver, Canada, July 8-10

Recent Patents

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Zdeblick T, Ray EF and Boyd LM (2007) Interbody Fusion Device and Method for Restoration of Normal Spinal Anatomy, U.S. Patent 7,238,186, Issued July 3.

Boyd LM, Ray EF, Estes, BT and Liu M (2007) Method and Instrumentation for Vertebral Body Fusion, U.S. Patent 7,189,242, Issued March 13.

Kozak J, Estes BT and Boyd LM (2006) Anterior Lumbar Plate and Method, U.S. Patent 7,060,069, Issued June 13.

Boyd LM and ML Upton (2006) Devices and Methods for the Restoration of a Spinal Disc, U.S. Patent 7,004,945, Issued February 38.
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Boyd LM, Lipschultz, TP, LoGuidice MD and A Carter (2005) Dynamic Spinal Stabilization System, U.S. Patent Application 2005/0143823, published June 30.
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Boyd LM System and Method for Pretreatment of the Endplates of an Intervertebral Disc, U.S. Patent Application 2005/0130929, published June 16
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Boyd LM, Ray EF and J Kozak (2005) Modular Interbody Fusion Implant, U.S. Patent 6,896,701, Issued May 24.

Foley K, Ebner H, Liu M, Branch C and LM Boyd (2004) Expandable Intervertebral Spacers, U.S. Patent 6,833,006, Issued December 21.

Frey G, Liu M, Josse L and LM Boyd  (2004) Devices and Techniques for a Posterior Lateral Disc Space Approach, U.S. Patent 6,830,570, Issued December 14

Boyd LM (2004) Reinforced Molded Implant Formed of Cortical Bone, U.S. Patent 6,761,738, Issued July 13.

Kozak J, Estes BT, and Boyd LM (2004) Anterior Lumbar Plate and Method, U.S. Patent 6,740,088, Issued May 25.

Bianchi J, Carter KC, Estes BT, Boyd LM, and JA Pafford (2004) Open Intervertebral Spacer, U.S. Patent 6,695,882, Issued February 24.

Zdeblick T, McKay, WF, Boyd LM, Ray EF and McGahan T: (2003) Spinal Fusion Implants and Tools for Insertion and Revision, U.S. Patent 6,613,091, Issued September 2.

Branch, CL,  Liu M, Boyd LM and Josse L: (2003)  Interbody Fusion Implants and Instrumentation, U.S. Patent 6,610,065, Issued August 26.

Zdeblick T, Boyd LM and Ray EF: (2003) Methods and Instruments for Interbody Fusion, U.S. Patent 6,595,995, Issued July 22, 2003.

Boyd LM, Ray EF, Estes BT, Burkus JK and Dorchak JD: (2003) Methods and Instruments for Vertebral Interbody Fusion, U.S. Patent 6,575,981, Issued June 10.

Boyd LM, Ray EF and Kozak J: (2002) Modular Interbody Fusion Implant, U.S. Patent 6,468,311, Issued October 22.

Boyd LM, Ray EF, Estes BT and Liu M: (2003)  Method and Instrumentation for Vertebral Interbody Fusion, U.S. Patent 6,428,541, Issued August 6.

Kozak J, Estes BT and Boyd LM, Anterior Lumbar Plate and Method, International Patent Publication WE 02/05874, August 1, 2002.

Bianchi JR, Carter KC, Estes BT, Boyd LM, and Pafford JA: (2002) Open Intervertebral Spacer, U.S. Patent 6,409,765, Issued June 25.

Foley K, Ebner H, Liu M, Branch C and Boyd LM: (2003)  Expandable Intervertebral Spacers, U.S. Patent 6,395,031, Issued May 28.

Zdeblick T, Ray EF, and Boyd LM: (2002) Interbody Fusion Device and Method for Restoration of Normal Spinal Anatomy, U.S. Patent 6,375,655, Issued April 23.

Pafford JA, Boyd LM, McKay WF, Ray EF and VanHoeck J: (2002)  Bone Grafts, U.S. Patent 6,371,988, Issued April 16.

Rabbe LM and Boyd LM: (2002)  Adjustable Vertebral Body Replacement, U.S. Patent 6,344,057, Issued February 5.

Zdeblick T, Boyd LM and Ray EF: (2001) Methods and Instruments for Interbody Fusion, U.S. Patent 6,245,072, Issued June 12.

Boyd LM and Pafford JA: (2001)  Flexible Implant Using Partially Demineralized Bone, U.S. Patent 6,206,923, Issued March 27.

Branch CL, Boyd LM and Ray EF: (2001)  Minimal Exposure Posterior Spinal Interbody Instrumentation and Technique, U.S. Patent 6,200,322, Issued March 13.

Foley K, Ebner H, Liu M, Branch CL and Boyd LM: (2001) Expandable Intervertebral Spacers, U.S. Patent 6,193,757, Issued February 27, 2001.

Michelson GK and Boyd LM: (2001) Anterior Spinal Instrumentation and Method for Implantation and Revision, U.S. Patent 6,190,388, Issued February 20.

Branch CL, Liu M, Boyd LM, and Josse L: (2001)  Interbody Fusion Grafts and Instrumentation, U.S. Patent 6,174,311 B1, Issued January 16.

Michelson GK, Boyd LM and McGahan T: (2000), Anterior Spinal Instrumentation and Method for Implantation and Revision, U.S. Patent 6,139,551, Issued October 31.

Boyd LM, Ray EF and McGahan T: (2000)  Template Assembly for Facilitating The Placement of Interbody Fusion Devices, U.S. Patent 6,096,044, Issued August 1.

Boyd LM, Burkus JK, and Dorchak JD: (2000)  Intervertebral Spacers with Side Wall Accessible Interior Cavity, International Patent Publication WO 00/41655, Published July 20.

Boyd LM, Burkus JK and Dorchak JD: (2000)  Truncated Open Intervertebral Spacers, International Patent Publication WO 00/41654, Published July 20.

Boyd LM and McGahan T: (1998)  Anterior Spinal Instrumentation and Method for Implantation and Revision, U.S. Patent 5,797,917, Issued August 25.

Boyd LM and Ray EF: (1998) Template for Positioning Interbody Fusion Devices, U.S. Patent 5,785,707, Issued July 28.

Zdeblick T, Ray EF and Boyd LM: (1998)  Interbody Fusion Device and Method for Restoration of Normal Spinal Anatomy, U.S. Patent 5,782,919, Issued July 21.

Rabbe LM, Boyd LM, Chavalier JL and Moreu JC: (1998) Adjustable Vertebral Body Replacement, U.S. Patent 5,776,198,
Issued July 7.

Rabbe LM, Boyd LM, Chavalier JL and Moreu JC: (1998) Adjustable Vertebral Body Replacement, U.S. Patent 5,776,197,
Issued July 7.

Rabbe LM, Boyd LM, Chevalier JL, and Moreu JC: (1997) Adjustable Vertebral Body Replacement, U.S. Patent 5,702,453, Issued December 30.

Boyd LM: (1997) Anterior Spinal Instrumentation and Method for Implantation and Revision, U.S. Patent 5,683,391, Issued November 4.

Zdeblick T, Ray EF and Boyd LM: (1997)  Interbody Fusion Device and Method for Restoration of Normal Spinal Anatomy, U.S. Patent 5,669,909, Issued September 23.

Boyd LM and Ray EF: (1997)  Template for Positioning Interbody Fusion Devices, U.S. Patent 5,645,549, Issued July 8.

Boyd LM, Salib RM and Pettine KA: (1996) Intervertebral Disk Arthroplasty Device, U.S. Patent 5,562,738, Issued October 8.

Boyd LM, Salib RM and Pettine KA: (1995) Intervertebral Disc Arthroplasty, U.S. Patent 5,425,773.  Issued June 20.

Boyd LM and Kozak J: (1995) Anterior Interbody Fusion Device, U.S. Patent 5,397,364.  Issued March 14.

Boyd LM: (1992) Implantable Prosthetic Device with Tethered Valve for Volume Adjustment, U.S. Patent 5,146,933.  Issued September 15.